Ordo salutis simply means “order of salvation.”

It can be viewed from (1) God’s viewpoint from eternity past, in time, to eternity future, or (2) simply in space, time, and history

It is both objective and subjective. Objective is what happens outside the person, that is, God’s actions. Subjective is the effect on the person, that is, his response to what God has done. All these steps are completed in every person whom God has chosen. None occur without all the others happening sequentially and certainly.

Eternity past (objective)

Covenant of Redemption (Trinity agrees on their plan of salvation)

Foreknowledge = “fore-love”– God loves His own

Predestination and Election: God determines specific plans to save His own

In space, time, and history (both objective and subjective)

Effectual calling (subjective)

Regeneration (“born from above,” “born-again,” and conversion; subjective)

Faith and repentance = conversion1 (subjective)

Justification (forensic; objective)

Adoption (forensic; objective)

Sanctification (subjective)

Perseverance (objective)

Eternity Future

Glorification and Union with Christ (heaven; subjective)


“Repentance is the twin sister of faith-we cannot think of the one without the other, and so repentance would be conjoined with faith. Conversion is simply another name for repentance and faith conjoined and would therefore be inclosed in repentance and faith.” John Murray, Redemption Accomplished and Applied (Eerdmans, 1955), page 87.

“Conversion is a sinner’s initial turning to the mercy of God in Christ upon an apprehension of sin as contrary to the righteous law of God.” (Gordon Clark, Religion, Reason, and Revelation (1986), page 26.