The Spanish Inquisition at work
When the Council convened its last meeting, which lasted about a year, the Jesuits dominated, and a French hope for some conciliation with Protestantism had no possibility of success—Italian bishops overwhelmingly controlled the outcomes. The Council of Trent achieved its twofold goals of condemning the principles and doctrines of Protestantism and clarifying the doctrines of the Catholic Church on all disputed points. The Church officially sought the reform of some of the abuses and issues that triggered the protests in the first place, like the moral corruption of priests and nuns, indulgences and the like. The Council issued decrees which defined Church doctrine on disputed issues and made explicit its condemnation of Protestant beliefs in a litany of curses upon those who held to those beliefs.
Elevation of the chalice after the consecration during a Tridentine Solemn Mass
The Council affirmed the veneration of the Virgin Mary, church tradition as authoritative as Scripture, reaffirmed seven sacraments of the Church, and, for the first time, used the term transubstantiation as the true meaning of the Mass, and that the sacrifice was to be offered for the living and the dead. They affirmed the Tridentine Mass, which codified Latin as the language of worship and ceremony. A brief summary of a few of the anathemas (curses) of the dozens issued: Let anyone who saith the following be accursed:
Anyone who saith that by Faith alone are the impious justified . . . without man’s cooperation.
Anyone who saith, that the justice received is not preserved and also increased before God through good works; but that the said works are merely the fruits and signs of Justification.